Terrorism has been on the international agenda since 1934, when the League of Nations, predecessor of the United Nations, began the elaboration of a convention for the prevention and punishment of terrorism. Although the Convention was eventually adopted in 1937, it never came into force.
Today, there are 15 counter-terrorism international conventions in force. They were developed under the auspices of the United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Moreover, on 8 September 2006, the UN General Assembly adopted a “Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy”.
Conventions open to all states
- 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed On Board Aircraft (Tokyo Convention)
- 1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Hague Convention)
- 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Sabotage Convention or Montreal Convention)
- 1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons (Diplomatic Agents Convention)
- 1979 International Convention against the Taking of Hostages (Hostages Convention)
- 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Nuclear Materials Convention)
- 1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation (Airport Protocol)
- 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (Maritime Convention)
- 1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf (Fixed Platform Protocol)
- 1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (Plastic Explosives Convention)
- 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (Terrorist Bombing Convention)
- 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (Terrorist Financing Convention)
- 2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (Nuclear Terrorism Convention)
- 2010 Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation (Beijing Convention)
- 2010 Protocol Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Beijing Protocol)
A 16th international convention, a proposed Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, is currently under negotiations.
Security Council Resolutions
- UN Security Council Resolution 731 (January 21, 1992)
- UN Security Council Resolution 748 (March 31, 1992)
- UN Security Council Resolution 883 (November 11, 1993)
- September 28, 2001 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, which makes it legally binding to member states. Among other provisions, it favored the exchange of intelligence between member states and legislative reforms. It established the United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) to monitor state compliance with its provisions. Later resolutions concerning the same matter were UNSC resolutions 1390, 1456, 1535 (which restructured the CTC), 1566, and 1624.