Individual state governments began taking action against the anti-Israel boycott, divest, and sanction (BDS) movement in 2015, with anti-BDS legislative enactments, legislative resolutions, and issuance of executive orders by state governors. The legislation falls into 2 main categories: (1) prohibition of public entities contracting with businesses that are engaged in BDS activities against Israel (and in some instances other countries); and (2) prohibition of government entities investing in companies that are engaged in BDS activities, requiring the divestment of prior holdings in those companies, and maintenance of a government list of those companies.Of the 3 tables below,
- The 1st table lists all 50 states, with there being a checkmark for those 35 states (as of 15 Aug 2022) that have anti-BDS laws or executive orders in effect. There are also pop-ups that have short descriptions of the law or executive order, and links to the text, to the legislative background, and where appropriate, to information on scrutinized companies. States in the table that have adopted non-binding resolutions only have a link to the text.
- The 2nd table lists the state enactments by basic type. States which have adopted resolutions of no legal effect are listed in the 2nd but not the 1st table.
- The 3rd lists by date of enactment.
The text of each enactment is available in PDF format from all 3 tables. For states which have amended legislation, the original and amending legislation are combined into one file in the 1st and 2nd tables but are separate in the 3rd.
I. List of All 50 States Indicating Which Have Anti-BDS Laws or Executive Orders in Effect [37 states as of 6 Jul 2023 – click on the state name for description and documentation] [Note: in some instances, links to state legislative websites will not work from outside the United States. They can be accessed through a VPN which utilizes a URL in the United States.]
II. Categorization of State Enactments by Type
|Prohibits State or political subdivision from investing in companies involved in a boycott against Israel||Prohibits State or political subdivision from contracting with businesses involved in a boycott against Israel||Prohibits State or political subdivision from contracting with businesses involved in certain boycotts (Israel not specified)||Prohibits State or political subdivision from contracting with businesses which discriminates against Israel or other countries||Legislative Resolutions condemning BDS (no legal effect)|
|North Carolina1||New Hamshire1|
|North Dakota1||North Carolina1|
1 The provisions in Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Iowa, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and North Dakota include both of the first two categories.
2 On September 27, 2018, a preliminary injunction was issued enjoining enforcement of the contracting prohibition (the injunction did not affect the investing prohibition). After the law was amended, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the preliminary injunction and directed the lower court to dismiss the case as moot. For additional information and litigation documents see the BDS Litigation page.
3 A lawsuit challenging the Kansas statute was dismissed upon agreement of the parties after approval of a legislative amendment narrowing the scope of the prohibition. For additional information and litigation documents see the BDS Litigation page.
4 The Arkansas statute was challenged in a lawsuit filed in December 2018. It was struck down on appeal. However, the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals held an en banc rehearing and reversed. The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case. For additional information and litigation documents see the BDS Litigation page.
5 There have been four challenges to the Texas statute. In two of the cases, an injunction was issued against the statute, but after it was amended, the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the injunction and ordered both cases dismissed as moot. In the other two, both were ordered dismissed on appeal by the 5th Circuit for lack of standing. For additional information and litigation documents see the BDS Litigation page.
6 The Georgia statute was challenged in a lawsuit filed in February 2020. After the statute was amended in 2022, the suit was dismissed for mootness and lack of standing. The 11th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the dismissal. For additional information and litigation documents see the BDS Litigation page.
7 The Maryland Executive Order was challenged in a lawsuit filed in January 2019. The case was dismissed by the District Court and upheld by the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals on appeal. For additional information and litigation documents see the BDS Litigation page.
8 The joint resolution has been superseded by legislation.
9 The Oklahoma house resolution, adopted on 4 May 2022, does not affect existing legislation.
III. Chronology of Enactments
|State||Date Signed Into Law||Text As Enacted|
|Tennessee1||April 24, 2015||Tenn. Sen. J. Res. 170|
|South Carolina||June 4, 2015||S. Carolina Code Sec. 11-35-5300|
|Illinois||July 23, 2015||Ill. Pension Code Sec. 1-110.16|
|Alabama2||February 16, 2016||Ala. Sen. J. Res. 6|
|Virginia||March 9, 2016||Virginia House J. Res. 177|
|Florida||March 10, 2016||Laws of Florida Ch. 2016-36|
|Arizona3||March 17, 2016||Ariz. Rev. Stat. Title 35, Ch. 2, Art. 9|
|Colorado||March 18, 2016||Colo. Rev. Stat. Art. 54.8 Part 2|
|Indiana||March 23, 2016||Indiana-Code-IC-5-10.2-11|
|Georgia4||April 26, 2016||Georgia Code Sec. 50-5-85|
|Alabama2||May 10, 2016||Alabama Act 2016-312|
|Iowa5||May 10, 2016||Iowa Code 12J.1-7|
|New York||June 5, 2016||New York Exec. Order No. 157|
|Rhode Island||July 14, 2016||R.I. Chap. 477 Laws of 2016|
|New Jersey||August 16, 2016||N.J. Pub. L. 2016 Ch.-24|
|California||September 24, 2016||Cal. Pub. Contract Code Sec. 2010|
|Pennsylvania||November 4, 2016||Penn. Pub. Law 2016-163|
|Ohio13||December 19, 2016||Ohio 131-HB-476|
|Michigan||January 5, 2017||Michigan Public Act 526 of 2016|
|Arkansas||March 29, 2017||Arkansas Act 710 of 2017|
|Texas6||May 2, 2017||Texas H.B. 89 of 2017|
|Minnesota7||May 3, 2017||Minn. Laws of 2017, Ch. 21 2017|
|Minnesota7||May 30, 2017||Minn. Laws of 2017, Ch. 21 (Amend.)|
|Nevada||June 2, 2017||Nevada Ch. 304 Laws of 2017|
|Kansas8||June 16, 2017||Kansas House Bill 2409|
|North Carolina||July 27, 2017||N. Carolina Sess. Law 2017-193|
|Maryland||October 23, 2017||Maryland E.O. 01.01.2017-25|
|Wisconsin9||October 27, 2017||Wisconsin Exec. Order 2017-261|
|Wisconsin9||April 3, 2018||2017 Wisc. Act 248|
|Kansas8||April 18, 2018||Kansas House Bill 2482 (Amend.)|
|Louisiana10||May 22, 2018||Exec. Order JBE-2018-15|
|Kentucky11||November 15, 2018||Exec. Order 2018-905|
|Arizona3||April 16, 2019||Ariz. SB 1167 (Amend.)|
|Mississippi||March 15, 2019||Mississippi HB 761|
|Kentucky11||March 25, 2019||Kentucky Ch. 58 of Acts of 2019|
|Texas6||May 7, 2019||H.B. 793 of 2019 (Amend.)|
|Louisiana10||June 6, 2019||Louisiana Law No. 155 of 2019|
|South Dakota||January 14, 2020||Exec. Order 2020-01|
|Oklahoma||May 21, 2020||Oklahoma HB 3697|
|Missouri||July 13, 2020||Missouri SB 739|
|Utah||March 17, 2021||Utah SB 186|
|Idaho||April 22, 2021||Idaho Sess. Law Ch. 284|
|West Virginia||April 26, 2021||West Virginia HB 2933|
|Georgia4||February 21, 2022||Georgia HB 383 (Amend.)|
|Iowa5||March 23, 2022||Amendment to 12J.2|
|Arizona3||March 23, 2022||Ariz. SB 1250 (Amend.)|
|Tennessee1||April 8, 2022||Tenn. Pub. Ch. 775|
|Ohio13||April 20, 2022||Ohio 134-SB-135 (Amend.)|
|Oklahoma12||May 4, 2022||Oklahoma H.Res. 1063|
|North Dakota||April 6, 2023||N. Dakota H.B. 1368|
|New Hamshire||July 6, 2023||Exec. Order 2023-05|
1 The Tennessee joint resolution, adopted on 24 Apr 2015, was superseded by legislation on 8 Apr 2022.
2 The Alabama joint resolution, adopted on 16 Feb 2016, was superseded by legislation on 10 May 2016.
3 The Arizona statute, originally signed into law on 17 Mar 2016, was amended on 16 Apr 2019, and again on 23 Mar 2022.
4 The Georgia statute, originally signed into law on 26 Apr 2016, was amended on 21 Feb 2022.
5 The Iowa statute, originally signed into law on 10 May 2016, was amended on 22 Mar 2022.
6 The Texas statute, originally signed into law on 2 May 2017, was amended on 7 May 2019.
7 The Minnesota statute, originally signed into law on 3 May 2017, was amended on 30 May 2017.
8 The Kansas statute, originally signed into law on 16 Jun 2017, was amended on 18 Apr 2018.
9 The Wisconsin executive order was superseded by legislative enactment, as of 3 Apr 2018.
10 The Louisiana executive order was superseded by legislative enactment, as of 6 Jun 2019.
11 The Kentucky executive order was superseded by legislative enactment, as of 27 Aug 2019.
12 The Oklahoma house resolution, adopted on 4 May 2022, does not affect existing legislation.
13 The Ohio statute, originally signed into law on 19 Dec 2016, was amended on 20 Apr 2022.